December 17th - The "Saturnalia"
This day is for special religious observance, being the first day of the Saturnalia, the Roman festival that honors
Saturn (Cronus), and which is one of the most festive and uninhibited that the ancient Romans celebrated.
holiday began celebrated with a sacrifice at the Temple of Saturn in the Roman Forum and a public banquet, followed by private
gift-giving, continual partying, and a carnival atmosphere that overturned Roman social norms: The poet Catullus called it
"the best of days."
In Roman mythology, Saturn was an agricultural deity who reigned over the world
in the Golden Age, when humans enjoyed the spontaneous bounty of the earth without labor in a state of social egalitarianism.
The revelries of Saturnalia were supposed to reflect the conditions of the lost mythical age, not all of them desirable.
By the late Republic, the private festivities of Saturnalia had expanded to seven days, but during the Imperial period
contracted variously to three to five days. Caligula extended it to five. In all periods it include the winter solstice.
The statue of Saturn at his main temple normally had its feet bound in wool, which was removed for the holiday as an
act of liberation. The official rituals were carried out according to "Greek rite." The sacrifice was officiated
by a priest whose head was uncovered. In Roman rite, priests sacrificed capite velato, with head covered by a special fold
of the toga. This procedure is usually explained by Saturn's assimilation with his Greek counterpart Cronus, since the Romans
often adopted and reinterpreted Greek myths, iconography, and even religious practices for their own gods. But the covering
of the priest's head may also be one of the Saturnalian reversals, the opposite of what was normal.
the sacrifice the Roman Senate arranged a "lectisternium,"a ritual of Greek origin that typically involved placing
a deity's image on a sumptuous couch, as if he were present and actively participating in the festivities. A public banquet
followed (convivium publicum).
The day was supposed to be a holiday from all forms of work. Schools were closed,
and exercise regimens were suspended. Courts were not in session, so no justice (punishment) was administered, and no declaration
of war could be made.
After the public rituals, observances continued at home. On December 18 and 19, which
were also holidays from public business, families conducted domestic rituals. They bathed early, and those with means sacrificed
a suckling pig, a traditional offering to an earth deity.
Saturnalia is the best-known of several festivals in the Greco-Roman
world characterized by role reversals and behavioral license. Slaves were treated to a banquet of the kind usually enjoyed
by their masters. Ancient sources differ on the circumstances: some suggest that master and slave dined together, while others
indicate that the slaves feasted first, or that the masters actually served the food. The practice may have varied over time,
and in any case slaves would still have prepared the meal.
Saturnalian license also permitted slaves to enjoy a pretense
of disrespect for their masters, and exempted them from punishment. It was a time for free speech: the Augustan poet Horace
calls it "December liberty." In two satires set during the Saturnalia, Horace has a slave offer sharp criticism
to his master. But everyone knew that the leveling of the social hierarchy was temporary and had limits; no social norms were
ultimately threatened, because the holiday would end.
The toga, the characteristic garment of the male Roman citizen,
was set aside in favor of the Greek synthesis, colourful "dinner clothes" otherwise considered in poor taste for
daytime wear. Romans of citizen status normally went about bare-headed, but for the Saturnalia donned the pilleus, the conical
felt cap that was the usual mark of a freedman. Slaves, who ordinarily were not entitled to wear the pilleus, wore it as well,
so that everyone was "pilleated" without distinction.
Gambling and dice-playing, normally prohibited
or at least frowned upon, were permitted for all, even slaves. Coins and nuts were the stakes.
of gifts was universally practiced. The Sigillaria on December 23 was a day of gift-giving.
Because gifts of value
would mark social status contrary to the spirit of the season, these were often the pottery or wax figurines called sigillaria
made specially for the day, or "gag gifts", of which Augustus was particularly fond.
In his many
poems about the Saturnalia, Martial names both expensive and quite cheap gifts, including writing tablets, dice, knucklebones,
moneyboxes, combs, toothpicks, a hat, a hunting knife, an axe, various lamps, balls, perfumes, pipes, a pig, a sausage, a
parrot, tables, cups, spoons, items of clothing, statues, masks, books, and pets.
Gifts might be as costly
as a slave or exotic animal, but Martial suggests that token gifts of low intrinsic value inversely measure the high quality
of a friendship.
Strenae, which were boughs to which were attached cakes or sweetmeats, were exchanged by visitors
Wax candles (cerei) were also given, symbolizing the quest for knowledge and truth (enlighenment).
The renewal of light and the coming of the new year was celebrated in the later Roman Empire at the Dies Natalis of
Sol Invictus, the "Birthday of the Unconquerable Sun," on December 25.
Gift-giving was not confined
to the day of the Sigillaria. In some households, guests and family members received gifts after the feast in which slaves
In a practice that might be compared to modern greeting cards, verses sometimes accompanied the
gifts. Martial has a collection of poems written as if to be attached to gifts. Catullus received a book of bad poems by "the
worst poet of all time" as a joke from a friend.
The phrase “io Saturnalia” was the characteristic
shout or salutation of the festival, originally commencing after the public banquet on the single day of December 17. It was
a strongly emotive ritual exclamation or invocation, used for instance in announcing triumph or celebrating Bacchus, but also
to punctuate a joke.
As an observance of state religion, Saturnalia was supposed to have been held sixteen
days before the Kalends of January, on the oldest Roman religious calendar which the Romans believed to have been established
by the legendary founder Romulus and his successor Numa Pompilius. The day marked the dedication of the Temple to Saturn in
the Roman Forum in 497 BC.
When Julius Caesar had the calendar reformed because it had fallen out of synch
with the solar year, two days were added to the month, and Saturnalia fell on December 17. It was felt, however, that the
original day had thus been pushed earlier by two days, and so Saturnalia was celebrated under Augustus as a three-day official
holiday encompassing both dates.[
Imperial sources refer to a Saturnalicius princeps who ruled as master of ceremonies
for the proceedings. He was appointed by lot, and has been compared to the medieval Lord of Misrule at the Feast of Fools.
His capricious commands, such as "Sing naked" or "Throw him into cold water," had to be obeyed by the
other guests at the convivium: he creates and (mis)rules a chaotic and absurd world. The future emperor Nero is recorded as
playing the role in his youth.
Since this figure does not appear in accounts from the Republican period, the
princeps of the Saturnalia may have developed as a satiric response to Rome's transition from a participatory republic to
imperial monarchy under a princeps, the title assumed by the first emperor Augustus to avoid the hated connotations of the
word "king" (rex).
Finally, unable to prevent the people's natural festive inclinations at this time
of year, early Christian leaders moved Christmas to December and claimed the celebration for their own